Sunday, 28 October 2012



Angola, more than three times the size of California, extends for more than 1,000 mi (1,609 km) along the South Atlantic in southwest Africa. The Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Republic of Congo are to the north and east, Zambia is to the east, and Namibia is to the south. A plateau averaging 6,000 ft (1,829 m) above sea level rises abruptly from the coastal lowlands. Nearly all the land is desert or savanna, with hardwood forests in the northeast.
Angola underwent a transition from a one-party socialist state to a nominally multiparty democracy in 1992.
The original inhabitants of Angola are thought to have been Khoisan speakers. After 1000, large numbers of Bantu speakers migrated to the region and became the dominant group. Angola derives its name from the Bantu kingdom of Ndongo, whose name for its king is ngola.
Explored by the Portuguese navigator Diego Cão in 1482, Angola became a link in trade with India and Southeast Asia. Later it was a major source of slaves for Portugal's New World colony of Brazil. Development of the interior began after the Berlin Conference in 1885 fixed the colony's borders, and British and Portuguese investment fostered mining, railways, and agriculture.
Peace Does Not Follow Independence
Following World War II, independence movements began but were sternly suppressed by Portuguese military forces. The major nationalist organizations were the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), a Marxist party; National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA); and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA). After 14 years of war, Portugal finally granted independence to Angola in 1975. The MPLA, which had led the independence movement, has controlled the government ever since. But no period of peace followed Angola's long war for independence. UNITA disputed the MPLA's ascendancy, and civil war broke out almost immediately. With the Soviet Union and Cuba supporting the Marxist MPLA, and the United States and South Africa supporting the anti-Communist UNITA, the country became a cold war battleground.
With the waning of the cold war and the withdrawal of Cuban troops in 1989, the MPLA began to make the transition to a multiparty democracy. Despite shifting ideologies, the civil war continued, with UNITA's charismatic rebel leader, Jonas Savimbi, armed and sustained by his control of approximately 80% of the country's diamond trade. Free elections took place in 1992, with incumbent president José Eduardo dos Santos and the MPLA winning the UN-certified election over Savimbi and UNITA. Savimbi then withdrew, charging election fraud, and the civil war resumed.
Four years of relative peace passed between 1994 and 1998, when the UN, at a cost of $1.6 billion, oversaw the 1994 Lusaka peace accord. In 1997, it was agreed that a coalition government with UNITA would be implemented. But Savimbi violated the accord repeatedly by refusing to give up his strongholds, failing to demobilize his army, and retaking territory. As a result, the government suspended coalition rule in Sept. 1998, and the country again plunged into civil war. Angola’s citizens continued to suffer. The hostilities affected an estimated 4 million people, about a third of the total population, and there were almost 2 million refugees.P
Peace Is Achieved, but Domestic Suffering Continues
On Feb. 22, 2002, government troops killed Jonas Savimbi, and six weeks later, on April 4, rebel leaders signed a cease-fire deal with the government, signaling the end of 30 years of civil war. While peace finally seemed secure, more than a half-million Angolans were faced with starvation.
Angola is the second-largest oil producer in sub-Saharan Africa, yet its people are among the continent's poorest. The corruption under the Dos Santos government bears much of the blame. According to the International Monetary Fund, more than $4 billion in oil receipts have disappeared from Angola's treasury in the last six years.
In Aug. 2006, a peace deal was signed with separatist rebels from the Cabinda region. That clash had been called Angola's “forgotten war.” About 65% of Angola's oil comes from the region.
In Angola's first national elections in 16 years, held in Sep. 2008, the governing Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) won about 82% of the vote. The opposition, the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (Unita), took 10%. The landslide victory gave the MPLA a two-thirds majority in Parliament.
Prime Minister Position Abolished
In early 2012, the position of prime minister was abolished due to the ratification of the 2008 Constitution of Angola. The Constitution transfers the functions of the prime minister to the president. The president must have the approval of the parliamentary majority in the same way as the prime minister did before.




Area: 468 sq. km. (180 sq. mi.); about half the size of New York City.

Cities: Capital--Andorra la Vella.
Terrain: Mountainous.
Climate: Temperate, cool, dry.

Constitution: Ratified in March 1993.
Independence: 1278.
Branches: Heads of State--Two co-princes (President of France, Bishop of Seu d'Urgell in Spain). Executive--Head of Government (Cap de Govern) and eight ministers (Executive Council). Legislative--Parliament (General Council), founded 1419, consisting of 28 members. Judicial--Civil, criminal, and administrative cases heard in first instance by four judges (batlles). Appeals and serious offenses are heard by the Tribunal of Courts. The High Court of Justice consists of a civil court, a criminal court, and an administrative appeals and social security court. The five-member High Council of Justice governs the judicial system. The Constitutional Tribunal is the highest constitutional body.
Subdivisions: Seven parishes (parroquies)--Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria, and Escaldes-Engordany make up the districts represented in the General Council.
Political parties/groups: Democrats for Andorra (DA), Social Democratic Party, Andorra for Change Party, and Green Party.
Suffrage: Universal at 18.


Nationality: Noun and adjective--Andorran(s).

Population (end of 2011): 78,115.
Annual population growth rate (2011): -8.1%.
Ethnic groups: Catalan, Spanish, French, Portuguese.
Religion: Roman Catholic.
Languages: Catalan (official), Spanish, French.
Education: Years compulsory--to age 16. Attendance--100%. Literacy--100%.
Health: Infant mortality rate (2009)--3/1,000. Life expectancy (2008)--84 years, male and female.
Andorrans live in seven valleys that form Andorra's political districts. Andorrans are a minority in their own country; they make up only approximately 43% of the population or about 33,480 native Andorrans. Spanish, French, Portuguese, and other residents make up the other 57% of the population.
The national language is Catalan, a romance language related to the Provencal group. French and Spanish are also spoken.
Education law requires school attendance for children up to age 16. A system of French, Spanish, and Andorran public schools provides education up to the secondary level. Schools are built and maintained by Andorran authorities, who pay also for Andorran teachers. French and Spanish schools pay for their own teachers. About 32% of Andorran children attend the French primary schools, 30% attend Spanish, and 38% attend Andorran schools. Andorran schools follow the Spanish curriculum, and their diplomas are recognized by the Spanish education system. In 1997, the University of Andorra was established. The University of Andorra has two graduate schools; the Nursing School and the School of Computer Science. Students can obtain a degree in business administration, nursing, or education sciences as well as computer science. Students can also follow virtual studies with Spanish and French universities. Out of the 1,415 students enrolled in university in the 2010-2011 academic year, 428 studied at the University of Andorra, 848 in Spanish universities, 110 in French universities, and 29 in other countries.


Andorra is the last independent survivor of the March states, a number of buffer states created by Charlemagne to keep the Muslim Moors from advancing into Christian France. Tradition holds that Charlemagne granted a charter to the Andorran people in return for their fighting the Moors. In the 800s, Charlemagne's grandson, Charles the Bald, made Count of Urgell overlord of Andorra. A descendant of the count later gave the lands to the diocese of Urgell, headed by Bishop of Seu d'Urgell.

In the 11th century, fearing military action by neighboring lords, the bishop placed himself under the protection of the Lord of Caboet, a Spanish nobleman. Later, the Count of Foix, a French noble, became heir to Lord Caboet through marriage, and a dispute arose between the French Count and the Spanish bishop over Andorra.

In 1278, the conflict was resolved by the signing of a pareage, which provided that Andorra's sovereignty be shared between the Count of Foix and the Bishop of Seu d'Urgell of Spain. The pareage, a feudal institution recognizing the principle of equality of rights shared by two rulers, gave the small state its territory and political form.

Over the years, the title was passed between French and Spanish rule until, in the reign of the French King Henry IV, an edict in 1607 established the head of the French state and the Bishop of Urgell as co-princes of Andorra.
Given its relative isolation, Andorra has existed outside the mainstream of European history, with few ties to countries other than France and Spain. In recent times, however, its thriving tourist industry and developments in transportation and communications have removed the country from its isolation.
The Andorran constitution was ratified and approved in 1993. The constitution establishes Andorra as a sovereign parliamentary democracy that retains as its heads of state two co-princes.
The fundamental impetus for this political transformation was a recommendation by the Council of Europe in 1990 that, if Andorra wished to attain full integration into the European Union (EU), it should adopt a modern constitution that guaranteed the rights of those living and working there. A Tripartite Commission--made up of representatives of the co-princes, the General Council, and the Executive Council--was formed in 1990 and finalized the draft constitution in April 1991.
Under the 1993 constitution, the co-princes continue as heads of state, but the head of government retains executive power. The two co-princes serve co-equally with limited powers that do not include veto over government acts. They are represented in Andorra by a delegate. As co-princes of Andorra, the President of France and the Bishop of Seu d'Urgell maintain supreme authority in approval of all international treaties with France and Spain, as well as all those that deal with internal security, defense, Andorran territory, diplomatic representation, and judicial or penal cooperation. Although the institution of the co-princes is viewed by some as an anachronism, the majority sees them as both a link with Andorra's traditions and a way to balance the power of Andorra's two much larger neighbors.
Andorra's main legislative body is the 28-member General Council (Parliament). The Sindic General (president of the General Council), the Subsindic, and the members of the Council are elected in the general elections held every 4 years. A Sindic General and a Subsindic are chosen by the General Council to implement its decisions. They serve 4-year terms and may be reappointed once. They receive an annual salary. Sindics have virtually no discretionary powers, and all policy decisions must be approved by the Council as a whole.
The General Council meets throughout the year on certain dates set by tradition or as required. At least one representative from each parish must be present for the Council to meet. Historically, within the General Council, four deputies from each of the seven individual parishes provided representation. This system allowed the smaller parishes, which have as few as 800 voters, the same number of representatives as larger parishes, which have up to 6,600 voters. To correct this imbalance, a provision in the 1993 constitution introduced a modification of the structure and format for electing the members of the Council; under this format, half of the representatives are chosen by the traditional system, while the other half are selected from nationwide lists.
Every 4 years, after the general elections, the General Council also elects the head of government, who, in turn, chooses the other members of the Executive Council. The current Executive Council has eight ministers.
The judicial system is independent. Courts apply the customary laws of Andorra, supplemented with Roman law and customary Catalan law. Civil, criminal, and administrative cases are first heard by the batlles court--a group of four judges, two chosen by each co-prince. Appeals and serious offenses are heard in the Tribunal of Courts. The High Court of Justice consists of a civil court, a criminal court, and an administrative appeals and social security court. The five-member High Council of Justice governs the judicial system. The Constitutional Tribunal is the highest constitutional body.
Andorra has no defense forces and only a small internal police force. All able-bodied men who own firearms must serve, without remuneration, in the small army, which is unique in that all of its men are treated as officers. The army has not fought for more than 700 years, and its main responsibility is to present the Andorran flag at official ceremonies.


Andorra is governed by the center-right coalition Democrats for Andorra, led by Antoni Marti Petit. Marti took office in May 2011 following his victory over the Social Democratic Party, headed by Jaume Bartumeu. This is the sixth government formed in Andorra since the ratification of the constitution in 1993. Andorra’s economy and its relations with the European Union are among the government’s top priorities.

There has been a redefinition of the qualifications for Andorran citizenship, a major issue in a country where approximately 43% are legal citizens. In 1995, a law to broaden citizenship was passed but citizenship remains hard to acquire, with only Andorran nationals being able to transmit citizenship automatically to their children. Lawful residents in Andorra may obtain citizenship after 20 years of residence. Children of residents may opt for Andorran citizenship after 18 if they have resided virtually all of their lives in Andorra. Mere birth on Andorran soil does not confer citizenship. Dual nationality is not permitted. Until 2008 non-citizens were allowed to own just a 33% share of a company, and only after they had resided in the country for 20 years would they be entitled to own 100% of a company. The country has now opened itself to foreign investors, allowing up to 100% ownership in activities and sectors considered strategic.
By creating a modern legal framework for the country, the 1993 constitution allowed Andorra to base its economy on tourism and international banking and finance. Over the short term, Andorra will continue to confront a number of difficult issues and the need to develop the institutions necessary to address them, including tax reform. The economic recovery and diversification, questions of Andorran nationality and immigration policy, and refining Andorra's relationship with the European Union are priority issues.

Following the establishment of sovereignty with the ratification of the constitution in 1993, Andorra moved to become an active member of the international community. In July 1993, Andorra established its first diplomatic mission in the world, to the United Nations. In early 1995, the United States and Andorra established formal diplomatic relations. Andorra also expanded relations with other nations. Andorra’s diplomatic and consular representation includes accreditation to 40 foreign countries and international organizations. Andorra is host to two resident diplomatic missions, and 98 countries have non-resident diplomatic representation.

Andorra is a full member of the United Nations (UN) United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), World Health Organization (WHO), Telecommunications International Union (ITU), United Nations World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), World Tourism Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), World Customs Organization (WCO), United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), International Criminal Court (ICC), International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), Council of Europe, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, International Center of Studies for Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Heritage (ICCROM), and Interpol, among others.
Since 1991, Andorra has had a special agreement with the European Union. In 2008, Andorra announced its endorsement of the Proliferation Security Initiative, designed to combat illegal trafficking in weapons of mass destruction.


The United States established diplomatic relations with Andorra on February 21, 1995. The two countries are on excellent terms. The U.S. Ambassador to Spain is also accredited as Ambassador to Andorra. United States Consulate General officials based in Barcelona are responsible for the day-to-day management of relations with Andorra. The Andorran Permanent Representative to the United Nations, Narcis Casal, was accredited as Andorra’s Ambassador to the United States in July 2009.